Masrur Temples

Othra, Beas River Valley, Himachal Pradesh, India

The Masrur Temples, likewise alluded to as Masroor Temples or Rock-cut Temples at Masrur, is a mid eighth century complex of rock-cut Hindu sanctuaries in the Kangra Valley of Beas River in Himachal Pradesh, India. The sanctuaries face upper east, towards the Dhauladhar scope of the Himalayas. They are a form of North Indian Nagara design style, devoted to Shiva, Vishnu, Devi and Saura customs of Hinduism, with its enduring iconography probably roused by a henotheistic system.

However a significant sanctuaries complex in the enduring structure, the archeological examinations propose that the specialists and engineers had an undeniably more ambititious plan and the mind boggling stays fragmented. A large part of the Masrur's sanctuary's model and reliefs have been lost. They were additionally very harmed, in all likelihood from tremors.

The sanctuaries were cut out of solid stone with a shikhara, and furnished with a holy pool of water as suggested by Hindu texts on sanctuary engineering. The sanctuary has three passages on its upper east, southeast and northwest side, two of which are deficient. Proof proposes that a fourth entry was arranged and begun yet left generally fragmented, something recognized by the mid twentieth century provincial period paleontology groups however disregarded prompting misidentification and mistaken reports. The whole complicated is evenly spread out on a square network, where the fundamental sanctuary is encircled by more modest sanctuaries in a mandala design. The primary sanctum of the sanctuaries complex has a square arrangement, as do different holy places and the mandapa. The sanctuaries complex elements reliefs of major Vedic and Puranic divine beings and goddesses, and its friezes describe legends from the Hindu texts.

The sanctuary complex was first revealed by Henry Shuttleworth in 1913 carrying it to the consideration of archeologists. They were autonomously overviewed by Harold Hargreaves of the Archeological Survey of India in 1915. As per Michael Meister, a craftsmanship student of history and a teacher having some expertise in Indian sanctuary engineering, the Masrur sanctuaries are an enduring illustration of a sanctuary mountain-style Hindu design which encapsulates the earth and mountains around it.

History

The period somewhere in the range of twelfth and nineteenth century was generally of strict conflicts and geo-political shakiness across the Indian subcontinent, and the writing of this time don't make reference to Masrur sanctuaries or present any academic examinations on any Hindu, Jain or Buddhist sanctuaries so far as that is concerned, rather they notice iconoclasm and sanctuary annihilation. After the twelfth hundred years, first northwestern Indian subcontinent, then, at that point, India, by and large, saw a progression of loot strikes and goes after of Turko-Afghan rulers drove Muslim militaries looking for riches, international influence and the spread of Islam. Progressive Muslim administrations controlled the Delhi Sultanate as floods of wars, uprisings, withdrawals, and ruthless counter-successes grasped Indian areas remembering those for and around Kashmir. The Mughal Empire supplanted the Delhi Sultanate in mid sixteenth hundred years. The Mughal tradition administered a significant part of the Indian subcontinent through mid eighteenth hundred years, and portions of it ostensibly through the nineteenth 100 years. The Kangra valley district with Masrur in the Himalayas was managed by more modest jagirdars and feudatory Hill Rajas who honored the Mughal organization for a long time. The appearance of the pilgrim time denoted one more seismic change in the area's governmental issues. By the late nineteenth hundred years, British India authorities had started archeological reviews and legacy safeguarding endeavors. The primary known visits to concentrate on the Masrur sanctuaries happened in 1887.

A British realm official Henry Shuttleworth visited and captured the sanctuaries in 1913, considering it a "Vaishnava sanctuary" and guaranteeing in his report that he was the principal European to visit them. He composed a paper on the sanctuaries, which was distributed by the diary The Indian Antiquary. He imparted his discoveries to Harold Hargreaves, then an official of the Northern Circle of the Archeology Survey of India. Hargreaves find out about Hindu philosophy, saw the Shiva linga in the sanctum and he amended Shuttleworth's report. Hargreaves reviewed his visit and distributed his photos and perceptions in 1915 as a piece of the ASI Annual Report Volume 20. Hargreaves recognized the revelation that a designer in his office had previously visited, estimated and made sanctuaries plans and segments in 1887, and that some other ASI laborers and Europeans had visited the sanctuary in 1875 and after 1887. The Hargreaves report portrayed the site as numerous sanctuaries, recorded iconography at these sanctuaries from various Hindu customs, referenced his hypotheses on joins with Mahabalipuram landmarks and Gandhara craftsmanship, and different speculations. The Hargreaves text turned into the prologue to Masrur sanctuaries for guides by journalists with practically zero foundation information on Indian sanctuary customs or Hindu philosophy. As indicated by Meister, these mid twentieth century compositions turned into a wellspring of the sanctuary's misidentification and deceptions that followed.

Tremor harm
The site was at that point harmed yet in fair condition in the late nineteenth 100 years. That's what hargreaves composed, "the distant circumstance and general detachment of the sanctuaries have been on the double the reason for their disregard and of their lucky break from the obliterating hands of the different Muhammadan trespassers of the valley". In the 1905 Kangra seismic tremor, the Himachal valley locale was crushed. Various old landmarks were obliterated. Nonetheless, despite the fact that pieces of the Masrur sanctuary broke and tumbled, the sanctuary stayed standing, due to its solid nature worked out of stone in-situ.
The harm from wars and 1905 seismic tremor of the area has made similar investigations troublesome. Nonetheless, the cautious estimations and drawings made by the obscure draftsperson in 1887, especially of the rooftop level and mandapa which were obliterated in 1905, have been a critical hotspot for late twentieth century grant. It upholds Shuttleworth's initial remarks that the sanctuary complex has a "ideal balance of plan".


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